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70mm in Mexico City

The 70mm Newsletter
Written by: Miguel Carrara, Mexico. Translated and Edited by Michael Coate Date: 12 June 2005
The author of the article

Mexican citizens have often been disappointed with the actions of their government, which they believe have been too involved with all aspects of the lives of its people...including their motion picture entertainment. The Mexican movie going public was not able to experience deluxe 70-millimeter and Cinerama presentations until many years after those innovations had been introduced in other countries around the world. However, once 70mm came to Mexico, a LOT of movies were shown in the large format, including several American and British productions seen in their country of origin only in 35mm versions.

Many decades ago, several grand movie palaces were built throughout Mexico City, much to the delight of moviegoers. These palaces were constructed and designed with a variety of styles from around the globe. It was not uncommon to find the auditoriums decorated with elaborate statues, paintings or candelabras. Perhaps the greatest cinema was the Flowery, which featured an art deco style and could seat nearly 7,000.

During the 1950s and the widescreen revolution, many of the Mexican cinemas capitalized on the trend and installed some of the new innovations being introduced. First to arrive in Mexico was 3-D and with it "Bwana Devil". The 3-D format, however, was not successful in Mexico and disappeared not long after its introduction.

CinemaScope, on the other hand, was a resounding success. 'Scope arrived in Mexico in December 1953, only three short months after the process premiered in the United States. As in the U.S., "The Robe" was the first scope film exhibited. By the middle of 1954, nearly every Mexican cinema had been outfitted with a new, larger and wider screen and a set of anamorphic CinemaScope projection lenses. Magnetic four-channel sound systems were, surprisingly, installed in quite a number of the scope cinemas, including many neighbourhood cinemas.

Unfortunately, the government intervened during this period and, in an attempt to be popular with the majority of the citizens, established a ceiling for ticket prices. While this restriction allowed the average citizen to afford attending movies on a regular basis, it delayed the installation of expensive innovations such as Todd-AO and Cinerama since a necessary and desirable hike in admissions could not be enforced.

Cinerama was late to arrive in Mexico. It had premiered in America in 1952, but by the time it was installed in Mexico in 1967, no more films were being produced in the three-strip format. The 70mm format had much greater success in Mexico, but too was late in its arrival.  It had been announced that Todd-AO 70mm would arrive in 1960, and the debut attraction was to be "Solomon and Sheba". But due to the government's restriction on an increase in ticket prices for deluxe attractions (higher admission prices being common in other countries, particularly in Europe and parts of Latin America), "Solomon and Sheba" was shown in 35mm. Other productions from the early 1960s with 70mm print availability ("The Alamo", "Black Tights", "The Man with the Green Carnation", "The Savage Innocents", etc.) also were shown in Mexico in 35mm versions.

The 70mm presentation format would finally be seen in Mexico City in 1962, seven years following its debut in New York, with the grand opening of the Cine Diana, in which the necessary projection and sound equipment was installed. Along with 70mm's arrival to the Mexican capital, the government allowed an 8 peso ceiling on admission to the Cine Diana (and subsequent 70mm venues) when screening 70mm prints. This was compared with a 4 peso ceiling for regular movie houses. Based upon the international exchange rate during the 1960s, one peso was equal to about eight to ten cents ($U.S.) at the time.

70mm in Mexico City... What follows is a cinema-by-cinema list of films exhibited in Mexico City in the 70-millimeter six-track stereophonic sound format. The information is based upon me attending the films, cataloguing my movie going experiences, and researching the engagement history in the local newspapers archived on microfilm. The titles have been listed in English, and although the premiere dates have not been included (they may be added in a revision), the titles are listed in their original exhibition order. I moved to Europe in 1976. However, I returned to Mexico for holiday visits and continued to attend many films shown in 70mm, and such films are included here.
Further in 70mm reading:

70mm Films shown in Mexico

Seeing 70mm in Mexico

70mm Premiere of "Jesus Christ Superstar" in Madrid

Curiosities from Mexico

Internet link:

Cine Diana

This beautiful movie palace opened in May 1962 and featured elegant, magnificent decor by famed Mexican artist Manuel Felguerez. The Cine Diana had a large Todd-AO screen, around 2,000 seats, and superb six-track stereo sound. In fact, the audio presentation quality was among the very best I experienced anywhere in the world. The first 70mm presentation at this cinema (and the first in Mexico City) was "Spartacus" in 1962; the final 70mm show was "A Chorus Line" in 1985. Today, this is just another typical eight-screen multiplex.

Films shown at the Cine Diana in 70mm:
Spartacus (USA / Super Technirama 70)
Exodus (USA / Super Panavision 70)
Can-Can (USA / Todd-AO)
Barabbas (Italy-USA / Super Technirama 70)
West Side Story (USA / Super Panavision 70)
El Cid (Italy-USA / Super Technirama 70)
Lawrence of Arabia (UK / Super Panavision 70)
Taras Bulba (USA-Yugoslavia / Blow-Up)
The Fall Of The Roman Empire (USA / Ultra Panavision 70)
Porgy and Bess (USA / Todd-AO)
Becket (UK-USA / Blow-Up)
The Cardinal (USA / Blow-Up)
Circus World (USA / Super Technirama 70)
My Fair Lady (USA / Super Panavision 70)
It's A Mad Mad Mad Mad World (USA / Ultra Panavision 70)
Scheherazade (France-Italy-Spain / MCS Superpanorama 70)
The Great Race (USA / Blow-Up)
Doctor Zhivago (USA / Blow-Up)
The Bible (Italy-USA / Dimension-150)
Doctor Dolittle (USA / Todd-AO)
Battle of the Bulge (USA / Ultra Panavision 70)
Guns for San Sebastian (France-Italy-Mexico / Blow-Up)
The Greatest Story Ever Told (USA / Ultra Panavision 70)
Camelot (USA / Blow-Up)
Valley of the Dolls (USA / Blow-Up)
Far from the Madding Crowd (UK / Blow-Up)
Star! (USA / Todd-AO)
The Great Wall (Japan / Super Technirama 70)
Anna Karenina (USSR / Sovscope 70)
Cheyenne Autumn (USA / Super Panavision 70)
Hell in the Pacific (USA / Blow-Up)
Krakatoa East of Java (USA / Super Panavision 70)
Emiliano Zapata (Mexico / Blow-Up)
Paint Your Wagon (USA / Blow-Up)
Too Late the Hero (USA / Blow-Up )
The Battle of Britain (UK / Blow-Up)
The Andromeda Strain (USA / Blow-Up)
On A Clear Day You Can See Forever (USA / Blow-Up)
Murphy's War (UK-USA / Blow-Up)
Hannie Caulder (UK / Blow-Up)
Rollerball (USA / Blow-Up)
A Chorus Line (USA / Blow-Up)

Cine Manacar

The Cine Manacar, which opened in April 1965, was elegant and very modern. Attributes included a great Todd-AO screen situated behind beautiful curtains of four sliding panels painted by Carlos Merida, about 2,000 seats, and good six-channel sound (though not as impressive as the sound system at the Diana). The first 70mm show was "How the West was Won" in 1965 which, since Cinerama had not yet come to Mexico, was converted from three-panel Cinerama to a composite 70mm version. The final 70mm engagement was "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band" in 1979. And worth noting, the Cine Manacar has the honorable distinction of having hosted the longest-running season in Mexican cinema history: 65 weeks of...(are you surprised?)..."The Sound of Music". Today: an awful multiplex of 11 screens.
How the West was Won (USA / Cinerama-to-composite 70mm)
Lord Jim (UK-USA / Super Panavision 70)
Cleopatra (USA / Todd-AO)
The Long Ships (USA-Yugoslavia / Super Technirama 70)
The Flying Clipper (West Germany / MCS Superpanorama 70)
The Sound of Music (USA / Todd-AO)
Those Magnificent Men in their Flying Machines (UK / Todd-AO)
The Agony and the Ecstasy (USA / Todd-AO)
Is Paris Burning? (France-USA / Blow-Up)
Khartoum (UK / Ultra Panavision 70)
The Black Tulip (France-Italy-Spain / MCS Superpanorama 70)
The Sand Pebbles (USA / Blow-Up)
The Comedians (France-USA / Blow-Up)
Half A Sixpence (UK / Blow-Up)
Uncle Tom's Cabin (France-Italy-West Germany-Yugoslavia / MCS Superpanorama 70)
Whom the Gods Wish to Destroy (West Germany-Yugoslavia / MCS Superpanorama 70) *)
Finian's Rainbow (USA / Blow-Up)
Custer of the West (France-UK-USA / Super Technirama 70)
Sweet Charity (USA / Blow-Up)
The Monte Carlo Rally (France-Italy-UK / Blow-Up)
Gone with the Wind (USA / Blow-Up / "Now in Wide Screen and the Wonder of 70mm")
The Young Girls of Rochefort (France / Blow-Up)
The Great Caruso (USA / Blow-Up / "Now in Wide Screen and the Wonder of 70mm")
Around the World in Eighty Days (USA / Todd-AO / First time in 70mm in Mexico)
Russian Adventure (USSR / Cinerama-to-composite 70mm)
Darling Lili (USA / Blow-Up)
Tchaikovsky (USSR / Sovscope 70)
Sleeping Beauty (USA / Super Technirama 70 / First time in 70mm in Mexico)
Hellfighters (USA / Blow-Up)
The Brothers Karamazov (USSR / Sovscope 70)
Four Flies on Grey Velvet (France-Italy / Blow-Up)
Mary, Queen of Scots (UK / Blow-Up)
Ben-Hur (USA / MGM Camera 65 / First time in 70mm in Mexico)
The Boyfriend (UK / Blow-Up)
The Great Circus Parade (USSR / Sovscope 70)
The Ten Commandments (USA / VistaVision / "Now in Wide Screen and the Wonder of 70mm")
Swan Lake (USSR / Sovscope 70)
Click image to see enlargement


I think, that is not a MCS Superpanorama 70 film as is written there. It is an UltraScope film (Cinematographic process), film negativ 35mm in this case a 70mm blow up.

Gerhard Witte, Berlin
Sunflowers (Italy-USSR / Sovscope 70)
The Hawaiians (USA / Blow-Up)
Jesus Christ Superstar (USA / Blow-Up)
Romeo and Juliet (Italy-UK / 1968 / Blow-Up / "Now in 70mm")
The Poem of Dance (USSR / Sovscope 70)
Julius Caesar (UK / 1970 / Blow-Up)
The Blood Spattered Bride (Spain / "70mm. Wide Screen")
Antony and Cleopatra (Spain-Switzerland-UK / Blow-Up)
Mame (USA / Blow-Up)
Goya (USSR / Sovscope 70)
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (USA / Blow-Up)

Cine Carrusel

The third 70mm-equipped venue in the capital city, this cinema opened in April 1965 shortly following the Cine Manacar. The cinema had an enormous gray auditorium but with limited decor. The screen was larger than most. The cinema could seat close to 3,000 and is noted for its many bookings of Soviet and other international films. Today, a highway and subway terminal sit in the demolished cinema's place.

Imperial Venus (France-Italy / Super Tecnirama 70)
Antinea, Siren of Atlantis (France-Italy / Super Technirama 70)
The Savage Pampas (Argentina-Spain-USA / MCS Superpanorama 70)
The Hallelujah Trail (USA / Ultra Panavision 70)
Buddha (Japan / Super Technirama 70)
War and Peace (Part I / USSR / Sovscope 70)
The Sleeping Beauty (USSR / Sovscope 70)
The Third Youth (USSR / Sovscope 70)
The Two of Us (USSR / Sovscope 70)
An Optimistic Tragedy (USSR / Sovscope 70)
The Law of the Antarctic (USSR / Sovscope 70)
The Tale of Tsar Saltan (USSR / Sovscope 70)
The Three Fat Ones (USSR / Sovscope 70)
War and Peace (Part II / USSR / Sovscope 70)
The Flaming Years (USSR / Sovscope 70)
A Hero of our Times (USSR / Sovscope 70)
Around the World Under the Sea (USA / Blow-Up)
Seven Brides for Seven Brothers (USA / "Now in the Splendor of 70mm")
Julius Caesar (USA / 1953 / "Now in 70mm Wide Screen")

From 1976 onward, many 70mm revivals of popular films were screened, including "Can-Can", "El Cid", and "The Sand Pebbles".

Hollywood Cinerama

Opened April 1967.

Bravo! At last! After a fifteen-year delay, Cinerama arrived in Mexico with a wonderful Cinerama Dome surrounded by a golden curtain and over 1,000 seats. This cinema featured one of the largest screens I ever saw (and I've been to numerous Cinerama venues across the world).

But despite the big news and appeal of Cinerama's arrival in Mexico, only one three-panel film was ever shown: "This is Cinerama". Following the "This is Cinerama" season, 70mm presentations began to be shown, and they were often promoted, in enjoyable hype of the era, as "70mm with Cinerama lenses on the biggest and best screen in the world".

Genghis Khan (UK-USA-West Germany-Yugoslavia / Blow-Up)
Casino Royale (UK-USA / Blow-Up)
The Taming of the Shrew (Italy-UK / Blow-Up)
Who Cares What They Say? (Spain / "70/mm. Widescreen")
Guess Who's Coming To Dinner (USA / Blow-Up)
In Cold Blood (USA / Blow-Up)
Oliver! (UK / Blow-Up)
Funny Girl (USA / Blow-Up)
Marooned (USA / Blow-Up)
MacKenna's Gold (USA / Super Panavision 70)
The End of the Barbarians (West Germany-Yugoslavia / Blow-Up)
The Last Valley (UK / Todd-AO)
Murphy's War (UK-USA / Blow-Up)
Cromwell (UK / Blow-Up)
Tora! Tora! Tora! (Japan-USA / Blow-Up)
Nicholas and Alexandra (UK / Blow-Up)
The Hindenburg (USA / Blow-Up)
Blind Terror (USA / "70mm Wide Screen")
Funny Lady (USA / Blow-Up)
Star Wars (USA / Blow-Up)
Close Encounters of the Third Kind (USA / Blow-Up)
Alien (UK-USA / Blow-Up)
The Empire Strikes Back (USA / Blow-Up)
Close Encounters of the Third Kind ("The Special Edition" re-issue)

Latino D-150

This cinema was refurbished into a deluxe Dimension-150 venue and re-opened in January 1968. The D-150 set-up looked essentially the same as any Cinerama set-up.  The 70mm presentations were good with adequate projection quality and okay sound. The films were often billed as a "Dimension-150 70mm Presentation". Today, the cinema is closed though still standing. Can anyone come to the rescue of the cinema?

Grand Prix (USA / Super Panavision 70)
2001: A Space Odyssey (UK-USA / Super Panavision 70)
Mayerling (UK / Blow-Up)
Ice Station Zebra (USA / Super Panavision 70)
Chitty Chitty Bang Bang (UK / Super Panavision 70)
The Olympics in Mexico (Mexico / Blow-Up)
The Lion in Winter (UK / Blow-Up)
Where Eagles Dare (USA / Blow-Up)
Goodbye, Mr. Chips (UK-USA / Blow-Up)
Airport (USA / Todd-AO)
Waterloo (Italy-USSR / Blow-Up)
Ryan's Daughter (UK / Super Panavion 70)
Anne of the Thousand Days (UK / Blow-Up)
Fiddler on the Roof (USA / Blow-Up)
Earthquake ((USA / Blow-Up / Sensurround)
The Wiz (USA / Blow-Up)
Hair (USA / Blow-Up)
Apocalypse Now (USA / Blow-Up)

Cine Olimpia

Dating back to the 1920s, this is the oldest cinema in Mexico City. Refurbished and re-opened in January 1968, this was given a whole new look. In its refurbished form, this featured a great Todd-AO screen, about 1,500 seats, and decent projection and sound quality. Today the building is closed though still standing.

The Dirty Dozen (USA / Blow-Up)
The Shoes of the Fisherman (USA / Blow-Up)
Winning (USA / Blow-Up)
Alfred the Great (UK / Blow-Up)
Once Upon A Time in the West (Italy-USA / Blow-Up)
Cervantes, The Young Rebel (France-Italy-Spain / Blow-Up)
Good Time Girls (Spain / "70mm Wide Screen")
The Story of Simon Bolivar (Italy-Spain-Venezuela / MCS Superpanorama 70)
The Virgin and the Gypsy (UK / Blow-Up)
The Novice Dreamer (Spain / "70mm Wide Screen")
Vaudeville Show (Spain / "70mm Wide Screen")
Petroleum Girls (France-Italy-Spain-UK / Blow-Up)
The Christ of the Ocean (Spain / "70mm Wide Screen")
Goodbye, Birth Stork, Goodbye (Spain / "70mm Wide Screen")
The Music Lovers (UK / Blow-Up)

Cine Futurama

Opening for business in 1968, the Cine Futurama was a big, elegant, and modern moviegoing palace with beautiful glass, carved decor and lighting. Unfortunately, it was located in a very distant suburban area which made it difficult to reach from the central parts of the city. As a consequence, the theatre had a limited number of first-run bookings and when showing 70mm they typically had already been screened elsewhere in the city. As for the presentation, projection and sound quality were excellent, and fans of the 70mm format usually made the extra effort to attend. The cinema was demolished, with a "cultural mall" (library, coffee shops, new theatres, etc.) currently residing in its place.

The Battle of Neretva (Italy-USA-West Germany-Yugoslavia / Blow-Up)
Zulu (UK / Super Technirama 70)
Raid on Rommel (USA / Blow-Up)
Oh! What A Lovely War (UK / Blow-Up)
The Wild Bunch (USA / Blow-Up)
Elvis: That's The Way It Is (USA / Blow-Up)
I Come, I Watch, I Shoot ( Italy-Spain / Blow-Up)
Liberation (USSR / Sovscope 70)
Wild Rovers (USA / Blow-Up)
Wrath of the Wind (Italy-Spain / MCS Superpanorama 70)
The Ten Commandments (USA / VistaVision / "Now in Wide Screen and the Wonder of 70mm")

Cinema Insurgentes 70

Another old movie house which originally opened in 1943. It was completely refurbished and re-opened in September 1969. The cinema featured a curved Cinerama-type screen and decent stereo sound. Unfortunately, they ran very few 70mm prints.

The Battle for Anzio (France-Italy-Spain-USA / Blow-Up)
The Horsemen (USA / Super Panavision 70 & Blow-Up)
El Golfo (Mexico-Spain / Blow-Up)
MacKenna's Gold (re-issue)
The Long Ships (re-issue)

Las Torres Super-Heraclorama

Click image to see enlargement

Very big! Very cold! Very odd! And always empty! This cinema opened in January 1970 in another far-off suburban area. Presentation-wise, this had the largest screen I ever saw. The Heraclorama process (never heard of it before or after) was a very large semicircular screen with foggy images and a notable lack of clarity. Sound quality was okay. The cinema survived by showing many re-releases and revivals. After being in business as a first-run house, the theatre showed plays and musicals. For a while it was a multiplex and is now closed.

Shalako (UK-West Germany / Blow-Up)
Catherine (France-Italy-West Germany / Blow-Up)
A Man Called Horse (USA / Blow-Up)
The Robe (USA / Blow-Up / "Now in the Splendor of 70mm")
The Longest Day (USA / Blow-Up / "Now in the Splendor of 70mm")
The Great Silence (Italy-Spain / Blow-Up)
Duel in the Sun (USA / Blow-Up / "Now in the Wonder of 70mm")
The Royal Hunt of the Sun (UK-USA / Blow-Up)
Scrooge (UK / Blow-Up)
El Cid (re-issue)
My Fair Lady
The Sound of Music (re-issue)
Lawrence of Arabia (re-issue)
Barabbas (re-issue)

Cine Las Americas

An enormous palace that originally opened in 1954, it was refurbished into a 70mm venue in 1970. The interior was an elegant green and gold. The cinema showed only a handful of 70mm presentations, though it lasted as a cinema for many years. In recent time, it was used as a casino and a wrestlers arena.

Kelly's Heroes (USA / Blow-Up)
The Red Tent (Italy-USSR / Sovscope 70)
The Devils (UK / Blow-Up)
The Great Waltz (USA / Blow-Up)
The Residence (Spain / "70mm. Wide Screen")
Michael Strogoff (France-Italy / MCS Superpanorama 70)
The Red Sun (France-Italy-Spain / "70mm. Wide Screen")
The Hill of the Dead (Italy-Spain / "70mm. Wide Screen")
The Black Hole (USA / Blow-Up)
Tron (USA / Super Panavision 70)

Cinema El Dorado 70

Opening in April 1970, this was the first cinema in Mexico City to be built within a commercial plaza (shopping mall). This was a large, Cinerama Dome-style cinema featuring excellent presentations. As with most of the other cinemas to open in the early 1970s, they screened few 70mm prints since the format was in a decline during that period of time. Today, this is an eight-screen multiplex, including two large auditoriums (by today's standards) and Digital Cinema projection capability.

Hello, Dolly! (USA / Todd-AO)
The Southern Star (France-UK / Blow-Up)
Song of Norway (USA / Super Panavision 70)
Patton (USA / Dimension-150)
The Light at the Edge of the World (Liechtenstein-Spain-Switzerland-USA / Blow-Up)
Tora! Tora! Tora! (re-issue)

Cinema Ciudadela 70

This opened in April 1971 and was similar in design as the El Dorado 70.

The Poseidon Adventure (USA / Blow-Up)

Cinema Plaza Statelite 70

Also similar in design to the El Dorado 70, this opened in October 1971. At the time, this was located in a far-off suburban area. But today, since the city has expanded so much, the area of its locale is not so much considered far-off. Today, this is a multiplex.

Le Mans (USA / Blow-Up)
The Sound of Music (re-issue)
The Rose (USA / Blow-Up)

Cinema Pedregal 70

Opened September 1972.

Quo Vadis (USA / "Now in the Splendor of 70mm. and Wide Screen")

Cinema La Raza 70

The only known 70mm engagements were revival showings of "A Man Called Horse" and "The Robe".

Cinema Imperial 70 & Cinema Tlaloc 70

These cinemas were promoted as having 70mm projection capability, but I am unaware of any 70mm screenings.

Cineteca Nacional

Opening in January 1974, this was the venue used by the Mexican Cinematheque. A modern design with nice but minimal decor, this featured excellent presentation quality. Unfortunately, this cinema was destroyed by a fire. It was rebuilt, though the modern version does not include 70mm projection capability.

That's Entertainment! (USA / Blow-Up)
Casino Royale (Shown during a Woody Allen retrospective)
The Leopard (France-Italy / Super Technirama 70 / Shown during a Luchino Visconti retrospective)
Solaris (USSR / Sovscope 70)
Dersu Uzala (Japan-USSR / Sovscope 70)

Auditorio plaza

A fine example of Mexican chaos! Just when the multiplex concept was spreading, someone, amazingly, decided to bring back to life the classic single-screen idea. This cinema had lay dormant for decades after a previous project, the Cine Astoria, failed to be completed. It was completed and opened as the Auditorio Plaza in January 1977. Very large, very tall, very cold, and most of the time, empty. They even boasted an elevator for the upper level and balcony. Excellent presentation quality! A shame that only a few 70mm prints were ever screened. Today, the theatre is closed.

Logan's Run (USA / Blow-Up)
That's Entertainment, Part II (USA / Blow-Up)
Return of the Jedi (USA / Blow-Up)
Blue Thunder (USA / Blow-Up)
The Star Chamber (USA / Blow-Up)
Portrait of a Bourgeois in Black (Italy / Blow-Up)
2001: A Space Odyssey (re-issue)
West Side Story
Gone with the Wind (re-issue)
The Wiz (re-issue)


Mexico City was not the only place in the country to experience the joy of 70mm. Other Mexican cities, such as Monterrey and Acapulco ran plenty of large-format presentations. However, there is some controversy over which city in Mexico was the first to show movies in 70mm. I believe Mexico City was the first to showcase 70mm presentations. However, film buffs I have spoken to suggest that Mendoza, Veracruz may have had a cinema equipped for 70mm at an earlier date than the capital city. In Minatitlan, Veracruz, similar sentiment has been given, with claims of early-'60s 70mm presentations of "King of Kings" and "South Pacific". In Acapulco, Guererro, some have claimed seeing "South Pacific" in 70mm as early as 1960.

In 1971, I spent some time in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon. I saw "Airport" there in 70mm at the Cuauhtimoc 70. That theatre's premiere presentation was "Paint Your Wagon" the year prior. In the Cinerama Tame Rmo 70, I saw "MacKenna's Gold", and in the Lmrico-Monterrey, the 70mm re-issue versions of "Seven Brides for Seven Brothers" and "Julius Caesar".

As readers may realize, cataloging the history of 70mm exhibition can be a never-ending research project. There is always more information to unearth and the stories are never complete. But for now, I hope you have enjoyed my look back at a memorable time in my life seeing movies in Mexico City. Considering I have also resided in Barcelona, Madrid and London, I have plenty of information to share. But that, my large-format friends, is a story for another time.

Miguel Carrara
Mexico City, September 2003

William Kallay
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Updated 21-01-24