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Visit biografmuseet.dk about Danish cinemas


Remembering “Star Wars”

The 70mm Newsletter
Written by: Michael Coate (Copyright 2003)Date: May 25, 2003
The date May 25, 1977 is immortalized forever as the "birthdate" of one of the most popular movies ever made: "Star Wars." Do you remember the cities and theatres it opened in?

For over two and a half decades, enthusiastic fans have related tales of standing in long lines and have recalled in astounding detail their first impression of seeing the original movie in George Lucas' legendary "Star Wars" saga. Many moviegoers remember seeing the movie on opening day. Ah, but which opening day??? The passage of time has caused many people to forget that "Star Wars" (known today as "Star Wars: Episode IV - A New Hope") did not have the type of opening movies of today enjoy. That is, thousands of theatres across the country simultaneously opening a film. Rather, "Star Wars" opened initially in a mere 43 locations across the United States. Many sources over the years have cited 32 as the opening number of engagements, a number many trivia-minded fans may recognize. The number 32 is correct...well...sort of. The film indeed opened with 32 engagements on the 25th of May, a mid-week Wednesday opening, but what many may not realize is that there were additional bookings added over the ensuing two days which brought its opening weekend engagement total to 43. To say the film opened in 32 theatres is literally correct but does not tell the complete story.

• Go to “Star Wars”: The North American 70mm Presentations
• Go to “Star Wars - Special Edition”: The 70mm Presentations

An immediate sensation, "Star Wars" (which TIME Magazine proclaimed "The Year's Best Movie" only five months into the year) accumulated incredible per-screen averages and broke numerous boxoffice and attendance records at the few locations lucky enough to have been playing the movie. The film industry was abuzz, and exhibitors everywhere couldn't wait to get their hands on a print. The film's distributor, 20th Century-Fox, had the lab cranking out prints as fast as they could as they accelerated their plans for a broad, nationwide release of the film. During the second week of release additional engagements were added in Los Angeles and Cincinnati to help accommodate high turn-away business in those markets. Still a week away from the start of the nationwide expansion, the third week saw two new engagements begin in Honolulu, Hawaii as well as an extra engagement added in the New York market. (The additional Los Angeles engagement, by the way, was booked into the Winnetka Drive-In and was presented in the newly-developed Cine-Fi car audio format.) The expanded release began with over 100 new engagements added throughout the U.S. during the week beginning June 17 (some runs began Wednesday the 15th) with additional engagements added each week (generally between 50 and 200) throughout the summer. At its peak in August and September "Star Wars" was playing in just over 1,000 theatres in the United States and Canada and was well on its way to surpassing "Jaws" (1975) and becoming the new all-time boxoffice champ.
Further in 70mm reading:

“Star Wars”: The North American 70mm Presentations

“The Empire Strikes Back”: The North American 70mm Engagements

“Return of the Jedi”: The North American 70mm Engagements

Films in 70mm Six-Track Dolby Stereo"70mm in Los Angeles

"Star Wars" Presented in Dimension 150

70mm Blow-ups

70mm Engagements by Title

35mm to 70mm Engagements by Year

Although there were certainly fewer movie theatres in operation during the 1970s compared with today, a "wide" release of a mainstream, non-specialized film at that time typically meant a few hundred engagements. To illustrate just how low the number of theatres was that "Star Wars" opened in, even by 1977 standards, here is for comparison a sample of some of the highly-anticipated films from the spring and summer of 1977 followed by the opening-week number of engagements for each: "A Bridge Too Far" (400+), "The Deep" (800+), "Exorcist II: The Heretic" (700+), "New York, New York" (400+), "Orca" (700+), "The Other Side Of Midnight" (500+), "Rollercoaster" (400+), "Smokey And The Bandit" (300+), and "The Spy Who Loved Me" (200+).

So why was "Star Wars" released to so few theatres initially when, in retrospect, the film seemed like such a sure-fire hit? In the 1997 book "Empire Building: The Remarkable Real Life Story Of Star Wars" by Garry Jenkins, former 20th Century-Fox executive Gareth Wigan offered an explanation: "'Star Wars' only opened in forty theaters because we could only get forty theaters to book it. That's the astonishing thing." "No one knew it was going to be a big hit," remembers Ben Burtt, who was responsible for "Special Dialogue & Sound Effects" on "Star Wars." "Nowadays, we take for granted that a big blockbuster will go out with thousands of prints, and open in May. But back then the summer special effects blockbuster did not exist." In Ted Edwards' "The Unauthorized Star Wars Compendium" (1999), Charles Lippincott, former Lucasfilm Ltd. Vice President for Advertising, Publicity, Promotion and Merchandising, mentioned that "If the film was redone today, on the basis of the way movies are released with a couple of thousand prints, it probably would have been unsuccessful. Theaters didn't want the movie. We were lucky to get thirty theaters to open it." Lippincott also remarked in that publication on the importance and prestige of getting booked in a major Hollywood theatre and the difficulty Fox faced in finding such a venue for "Star Wars." "At that time, Hollywood Boulevard was still very important for opening films. We only got on Hollywood Boulevard because the new Billy Friedkin film ("Sorcerer") wasn't ready yet. It was supposed to be ready by May 25 but wasn't, and we were given a month in the Chinese. It was the only way we got into Grauman's." For Peter Biskind's "Easy Riders, Raging Bulls: How The Sex-Drugs-And-Rock 'N' Roll Generation Saved Hollywood" (1998), "Sorcerer" film editor Bud Smith recalled his experience in seeing the coming attractions trailer he had cut for that film in front of "Star Wars" at the Chinese Theatre: "When our trailer faded to black, the curtains closed and opened again, and they kept opening and opening, and you started feeling this huge thing coming over your shoulder overwhelming you, and heard this noise, and you went right off into space. It made our film look like this little, amateurish piece of [expletive]. I told Billy [Friedkin], 'We're [expletive] being blown off the screen. You gotta go see this.'" To accommodate the opening of "Sorcerer" on 24 June, "Star Wars" was in fact moved to another theatre a couple of blocks away. But the space opera that at one time no one wanted would have the last laugh. As Friedkin's remake of "The Wages Of Fear" failed to live up to expectations while "Star Wars" continued to perform in stellar fashion, Lucas' epic moved back to the famous Chinese beginning August 3, where it stayed until June 1978. This marked the first time a film had returned to the Chinese for a second first-run engagement in the theatre's then fifty-year history.
In contrast with the belief shared by many that "Star Wars" was a tough sell to exhibitors, others feel that at least a few people at 20th Century-Fox had a hunch the movie could be a big hit if marketed carefully and given a platform-type "prestige" release, specifically keeping the number of engagements limited to key markets during the initial weeks of release. Other movies from 1977 given successful prestige openings included "Julia," "The Turning Point," and "Close Encounters Of The Third Kind." Peter Myers, Vice President of Domestic Distribution for Fox at the time, first saw "Star Wars" in a test screening three months before scheduled release. He was very impressed, and contemplated the best approach to marketing the film. "The answer," Myers revealed to the Associated Press a few months following the movie's opening, "was to position the picture in the proper theaters and give it the proper presentation so the people themselves could discover it and spread the word."

Why compile a list of original opening-week engagements for "Star Wars"? Hasn't such a list appeared in print, been discussed in conversation, or contained somewhere in the vastness of cyberspace? Well, let's put it this way...information pertaining to the original release of the film has all-too-frequently been misrepresented in published form and conversation over the years. This is an effort to separate fact from fiction, reality from myth, and to illustrate that memory is not a science. Also, in reading this article with a contemporary perspective, people may be surprised to find that the movie opened in so few theatres initially. There is also an historical "time capsule" factor in which fans might look over the list and be reminded of seeing the movie at one of the theatres. Movie buffs may find it nostalgic (or depressing) to scan the list and note the many theatres that no longer exist or have been multiplexed beyond recognition. Many of the theatres the film originally played in were huge 1,000+ seat, single-screen venues; movie palaces from a bygone era. And, since fans have debated, argued, and practically drawn lightsabers over the numerous versions that exist of the film, many will be interested to learn that the initial film prints prepared for "Star Wars" included a sound mix that a number of the prints distributed after the initial wave did not have.

Another matter of interest (and controversy) is the presentation type audiences experienced in the opening weeks of release. Numerous books, trade publications, magazine and Internet articles, and fan recollections have over the years attributed "Star Wars" as having an exclusive opening in the "Dolby Stereo" process ("Dolby System" as it was then known), or having an exclusive "70mm Six-Track Dolby Stereo" opening with the 35mm versions appearing weeks later, or that the movie was the first ever to be released in Dolby Stereo. None were true! A few films were released in various forms of Dolby Stereo prior to "Star Wars" on a limited or test engagement basis such as "Tommy" (1975), "Nashville" (1975), "Lisztomania" (1975), "Logan's Run" (1976), and "A Star Is Born" (1976), though "Star Wars" was the first attempt at a wide release in the format. It appears that the distributor sought to book the film at the producers' urging in as many theatres as possible willing to install Dolby sound systems. The number of suitably-equipped venues, however, fell short of the total number of prints initially put into circulation. As for release prints in the deluxe (and expensive to produce) 70-millimeter format -- with its superior projection quality and exquisite six-track magnetic audio capability -- they were kept to a minimum.
35mm frame from "Star Wars". Note two stripes of optical SVA soundtrack.

Many technology-savvy and quality-conscious moviegoers may have a distinct recollection of attending a 70mm presentation. However, in looking over the list of original engagements included in this article some may be surprised to find that only eight 70mm engagements are noted, and that they were limited to theatres in the Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco markets. Ah, but some of you are positive you saw a 70mm showing at a big, famous theatre in places such as Washington, D.C. (at the Uptown), or Dallas (Northpark), or Phoenix (Cine Capri), Chicago (Oakbrook), Detroit (Americana), Salt Lake City (Centre), Seattle (Cinema 150), Philadelphia (Mark I), Denver (Cooper; later in run at the Continental), or even Honolulu (Cinerama). Well, you did...but not during the month of May!

Throughout the summer and fall of 1977 as "Star Wars" continued to perform beyond expectations Fox ordered several new 70mm prints, and many of the initial theatres, as well as others, were provided with a new large-format print. By the winter holidays over two dozen 70mm engagements could be found in the U.S.

When people fondly recall the soundtrack experience of "Star Wars" -- the rumble of the Imperial Cruiser in the opening scene... the electronic squeaks and chirps of R2-D2... the hum of the lightsabers... the roar of the TIE Fighters... the Millennium Falcon's escape from the Mos Eisley spaceport and jump to hyperspace... the unforgettable John Williams music score... the climactic explosion of the Death Star... -- it is likely that one's memory is based on having attended a 70mm Six-Track Dolby Stereo presentation, with its qualitative superiority over conventional 35mm stereo and monaural presentations. While all things digital are commonplace today, back then "70mm" was the Rolls-Royce of the movies.
Variations in the soundtrack presentations of "Star Wars" can be traced to the multiple mixes that were prepared to accommodate the different formats the movie would be released in:

(1) 35mm two-track (four-channel) Dolby Stereo
(2) 70mm Six-Track Dolby Stereo
(3) 35mm Academy mono.

(For international release, a fourth format would be available for exhibition: 35mm four-track magnetic stereo.) 

70mm frame from "Star Wars". Proportionally the same size as the 35mm frame above. Note amount of picture information.

Each version offered a different entertainment experience. The sound editing and re-recording team began by preparing a four-track master mix (Left-Center-Right-Surround), which would serve as the basis for both the 35mm and 70mm stereo versions. The master mix was dubbed into a matrix-encoded two-track Lt-Rt (Left total-Right total) printmaster for use on the 35mm Dolby Stereo prints. The same four-track master, with some enhancements, was also used to create the six-track version. In comparison to the 35mm Dolby Stereo version, the six-track soundtrack during playback offered discrete channels, greater clarity and dynamic range characteristics, and special low-frequency content (bass extension, or "baby boom"). After completing the multi-channel versions, the soundtrack crew created another English-language mix, a monaural mix, to be included on prints destined for theatres not equipped with a stereophonic sound system and for versions prepared for ancillary markets. Although the 35mm Dolby Stereo process was designed to be (and is) mono-compatible, at the time, those involved with the new technology were concerned about the effectiveness of mono playback from a stereo-encoded print for both technical and aesthetic reasons. For similar reasons, a decision was made not to create the mono master by means of dubbing the stereo master and "folding" the multiple tracks into one. Instead, a new dedicated mono mix was created from scratch. With each subsequent mix, the filmmakers seized opportunities to revise and enhance selected portions of the soundtrack where they had felt rushed or shortchanged creatively, wished different choices had been made for a given scene, or simply selected a different take of a given line of dialogue. Sound designer Ben Burtt recalls: "Because we were always trying to make the film better and better and fix things that were not right, there was some 'sweetening' done; things like different Stormtrooper or C-3PO lines, additional sound effects, or some different ADR." 
At the time, not knowing what the future would hold in terms of widespread adoption of multi-channel sound not only in movie theatres but in homes as well, some members of the production felt the mono mix represented the definitive soundtrack of the movie (not in terms of a sonic experience but, rather, in terms of audio content), and felt that the stereo version was a novelty that select audiences would be treated to only during a brief theatrical run. "George put a lot of effort in that mono mix," Burtt remembers, "and he even said several times, 'Well, this is the real mix. This is the definitive mix of the film.' He paid more attention to it because he felt it was more important archivally."

Knowing that multiple mixes were made that contained subtle yet detectable differences may help explain any conflicting or confusing memories of moviegoers who remember hearing a certain sound effect or line of dialogue in one presentation but not in another (a Stormtrooper calling out "Close the blast doors" while chasing Han Solo and Chewbacca through a Death Star corridor, for example). (Fans may be interested to know that "The Empire Strikes Back" was also released in separate versions that included numerous pictorial and audio differences...but that is another article.)

Many theatres played the movie well into 1978. A number of the engagements exceeded one year! The Astor Plaza Theatre in New York City, for instance, played the film for 61 weeks, grossing nearly $4 million during that timeframe. Movies today barely play six weeks! The longest continuous run of "Star Wars" in North America was in Portland, Oregon. After Week 67 in September 1978, all engagements still running, save for Portland, were retired. (Portland's engagement was allowed to continue beyond the 67th and final week of release as a result of a boxoffice performance clause in its booking contract.)

Okay, on with the main attraction! Click here for the complete and definitive list of original, first-week engagements of "Star Wars.

Trivia (U.S. and Canada release)

Number of engagements at widest point of distribution: 1,098 (original); 1,756* (1978 re-release)

Number of theatres equipped with Dolby Stereo on film's opening week of release: 27

Opening day boxoffice gross (32 theatres): $254,809

Opening weekend boxoffice gross (four-day holiday weekend, 43 theatres): $2.1 million

Opening weekend per-screen average: $48,837

Top-grossing movie in North America during opening weekend (May 27-30): "Smokey And The Bandit" ($2.7 million, 386 engagements)

Number of days in release when gross surpassed $100 million: 81

Total boxoffice gross during summer season (Memorial Day - Labor Day): $133.7 million

Total domestic boxoffice gross original run: $265.1 million**

Place on all-time domestic boxoffice gross and film rental lists at end of original run: 1

Longest-running engagement: 76 weeks, Westgate (Portland)

Highest-grossing engagement: Astor Plaza (New York)

Highest per-screen average: Coronet (San Francisco)

Current domestic boxoffice gross (including all re-releases): $461 million

Current place on all-time domestic boxoffice gross list: 2

*Included here because there was never a point in time where all of the prints from the original release had been withdrawn. The "original" release "ended" on July 20, 1978 and the "re-release" began the following day, July 21. This was in effect an "extended first-run" but is often referred to as a "general release" and a "re-release," though not a re-release in the conventional sense. (The film had official re-releases in North America in 1979, 1981, 1982, and 1997.)

**Includes 60-week original run (05/25/77 - 07/20/78) + seven-week extended first-run/general release/re-release (07/21/78 - 09/07/78) + nine-week extended Portland run (09/08/78 - 11/07/78).

Additional Information & Statistics (U.S. and Canada release)

Release schedule/Total number of engagements during weekend beginning:

May 27: 43
June 03: 2 (45)
June 10: 3 (48)
June 17: 109 (157)
June 24: 203 (360)
July 01: 136 (496)
July 08: 81 (577)
July 15: 51 (628)
July 22: 183 (811)
July 29: 145 (956)
Aug 05: 88 (1,044)

Newspaper sources (various 1977-78 movie advertisements)

Albuquerque Journal
Anchorage Daily News
Arizona Daily Star
Arizona Republic, The (Phoenix)
Arkansas Democrat-Gazette (Little Rock)
Atlanta Constitution, The
Austin American-Statesman
Boston Globe, The
Buffalo News, The
Casper Star-Tribune
Charleston Gazette, The
Charlotte Observer, The
Chicago Tribune
Cincinnati Enquirer, The
Columbus Dispatch, The
Commercial Appeal, The
Courier-Journal, The (Louisville)
Daily Oklahoman, The (Oklahoma City)
Dallas Morning News, The
Dayton Daily News
Democrat and Chronicle
Denver Post, The
Des Moines Register, The
Deseret News
(Salt Lake City)
Detroit News, The
El Paso Times
Florida Times-Union, The
Fort Worth Star-Telegram
Fresno Bee, The
Gazette, The
Honolulu Advertiser, The
Honolulu Star-Bulletin
Houston Chronicle
Houston Post, The
Idaho Statesman, The
Indianapolis Star, The
Kansas City Times, The
Las Vegas Review-Journal
Lexington Herald-Leader
Lincoln Journal Star
Los Angeles Times
Miami Herald, Th
Milwaukee Journal Sentinel
Minneapolis Tribune
Monterey Peninsula Herald
New Mexican, The
(Santa Fe)
New York Times, The
(Santa Barbara)
Omaha World-Herald
Oregonian, The
Philadelphia Daily News
Philadelphia Inquirer, The
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
Plain Dealer, The
Quad-City Times, The (Bettendorf/Davenport/Moline/Rock Island)
Register, The (Santa Ana/Orange County)
Reno Evening Gazette
Sacramento Bee, The
San Antonio Express
San Diego Union, The
San Francisco Chronicle
San Jose Mercury News
Seattle Times, The
Sentinel Star
St. Louis Post-Dispatch
St. Paul Pioneer Press
Sun, The
Tampa Tribune, The
Tennessean, The
Times-Picayune, The (New Orleans)
Times Union (Albany)
Toronto Star, The
Tulsa World
Washington Post, The
Vancouver Sun, The

Bibliography & Sources (general research and specific references)


Ben Burtt, interviewed by author, March 26, 2003


Besse, Kirk J., "Show Houses: Twin Cities Style," Victoria, Minneapolis, 1997

Biskind, Peter, "Easy Riders, Raging Bulls: How The Sex-Drugs-And-Rock 'N' Roll Generation Saved Hollywood," Simon & Schuster, New York, 1998

Champlin, Charles, "George Lucas: The Creative Impulse," Abrams, New York, 1992

Ebert, Roger and Gene Siskel, "The Future Of The Movies: Interviews With Martin Scorsese, Steven Spielberg, And George Lucas," Andrews and McMeel, Kansas City, 1991

Edwards, Ted, "The Unauthorized Star Wars Compendium," Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1999

Fine, Deborah and Aeon Inc., "Star Wars Chronicles," Chronicle Books, San Francisco, 1997

Holman, Tomlinson, "5.1 Surround Sound: Up And Running," Focal Press, Boston, 2000

Jenkins, Garry, "Empire Building: The Remarkable Real Life Story Of Star Wars," Citadel Press, Secaucus, 1997

- - -, "Harrison Ford: Imperfect Hero," Birch Lane Press, Secaucus, 1998

Kawin, Bruce F., "How Movies Work," University of California Press, Berkeley, 1992

Kline, Sally, ed., "George Lucas Interviews," University Press of Mississippi, Jackson, 1999

Pfeiffer, Lee and Michael Lewis, "The Films Of Harrison Ford," Citadel Press, Third Edition, New York, 2002

Pollack, Dale, "Skywalking: The Life And Films Of George Lucas," Harmony, New York, 1983

Pye, Michael and Linda Myles, "The Movie Brats: How The Film Generation Took Over Hollywood," Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1979

Salewicz, Chris, "George Lucas: The Making Of His Movies," Thunder's Mouth Press, New York, 1998

Squire, Jason E., ed., "The Movie Business Book," Fireside, New York, 1983

Articles (Magazines, newspapers and trade publications):

Allen, Ioan, "The Dolby Sound System For Recording Star Wars," American Cinematographer, July 1977

Boxoffice, various 1977 issues (sidebars, release schedules, news items)

Broeske, Pat H., "Happy 10th, 'Star Wars'," Los Angeles Times, May 23, 1987

Chernoff, Scott, "20 Years Ago Today: An Anniversary Toast To Star Wars," Star Wars Insider, Issue 32 Winter 1997

Chiarella, Chris, "Star Wars Trilogy, The Definitive Collection: THX Laser Disc Program Hits Home," The Perfect Vision, Spring 1994

"A Chronology of Dolby Laboratories May 1965-May 1996," Dolby Laboratories, Inc., 1996

Clarke, Gerald and William Rademaekers, "Star Wars: The Year¹s Best Movie," Time, May 30, 1977

Coate, Michael and William Kallay, "Presented In 70mm," Widescreen Review, The Ultimate Widescreen DVD Movie Guide, Volume 1 Number 1, 2001

Cohn, Lawrence, "Larger-Than-Life Pix Pay Off," Daily Variety, July 28, 1982

- - -, "Rapidly Expanding Universe Of U.S. Theatres Equipped With 70m, Dolby," Daily Variety, April 30, 1984

Curry, Bill, "The Force Is Coming In Widescreen, Stereo," The Philadelphia Inquirer, November 01, 1977

Daly, Steve, "The Remaking Of Star Wars," Entertainment Weekly, January 10, 1997

"Dolby-70mm Version Of 'Star Wars' Open," Deseret News, August 19, 1977

"Dolby Prints With Stereo Called As Cheap As Optical," Variety, May 18, 1977

Duelly, Bill, "Star Wars: Anniversary Focuses Collective Eye On Movie Trilogy Memorabilia," Big Reel, February 15, 1997

"Fox' 'Star Wars' Heads For Hyper Space: First Day B.O. 255G, House Records Tumble," Daily Variety, May 27, 1977

Freeman, Adam, "20 Years Ago, In A Galaxy Far, Far, Away... Why Is Star Wars The Single Most Influential Movie Of The Last Two Decades? Duh?," CyberSurfer, Issue 9 April 1997

Garrett, Maureen, "Star Wars: Happy 5th Birthday," Bantha Tracks, Journal Of The Official Star Wars Fan Club, Number 16 May 1982
Grant, Lee, "Film Clips," Los Angeles Times, June 01, 1977

Handy, Bruce. "The Force Is Back," Time, February 10, 1997

Harmetz, Aljean, "Sensurround: One Of The Biggest Stars In Show Biz," Houston Chronicle, May 29, 1977

Hartl, John, " 'White Buffalo' On Drive-In Screens, Dimly," The Seattle Times, August 19, 1977

Hidalgo, Pablo, "Star Wars Q&A," Star Wars Insider, Issue 59 May/June 2002

Holland, Steve, "Empires Of The Future," SFX, #23 March 1997

Houston, David, "Creating The Space-Fantasy Universe Of Star Wars," Starlog, August 1977

Hutchison, David, "A Newer Hope," Starlog, March 1997

Lennick, Michael, "Skywalking In Style: Rating The Star Wars Trilogy and The Definitive Collection," Video Watchdog, No. 21 Jan / Feb 1994

Mahar, Ted, " 'Star Wars' Rendered Clearer," The Oregonian, October 19, 1977

Mann's Chinese Theatre Hollywood, Souvenir Booklet, C.P., 1992

Matessino, Michael, "70mm Variations Strike Back," Film Score Monthly, January/February 1997

Murphy, A.D., "Star Wars Adds Another To Its List Of Records," Daily Variety, August 01, 1977

- - -, " 'Star Wars' Best Start Since 'Jaws'," Variety, June 01, 1977

- - -, "Two More Notable Trophies Added To 'Star Wars' Shelf," Daily Variety, August 11, 1977

"Portland House Set To Become 'Wars' Fortress," Daily Variety, August 22, 1978

Pratt, Douglas, "The Star Wars Trilogy: The Definitive Collection," The Laser Disc Newsletter, September 1993

Reber, Gary, "Dave Schnuelle: A Conversation With The Technical Supervisor For THX Software Certification - The Making Of The 'Star Wars Trilogy' Fox Video THX LaserDisc Collector¹s Edition," Widescreen Review, Issue 5 September/October 1993

- - -, "Ioan Allen: A Conversation With The Father Of Dolby Stereo," Widescreen Review, Issue 4 July/August 1993

Rowand, Ken, "Interview: Ben Burtt," Bantha Tracks, Journal Of The Official Star Wars Fan Club, Number 17 August 1982

Schein, Robert M., "70mm And Stereo Sound," Boxoffice, January 1985

" 'Star Wars' B.O. History," Daily Variety, May 17, 1999

" 'Star Wars' B.O. Hits Wow $2.5 Mil," Daily Variety, June 01, 1977

" 'Star Wars' Booms Optical Tracks For Sound; Dolby Labs Cashing In," Variety, November 23, 1977

" 'Star Wars' Final 1977 Milestone: $200 Mil Dom. B.O.," Daily Variety, December 30, 1977

" 'Star Wars' Now Past $5 Mil Mark In Domestic B.O.," Daily Variety, June 07, 1977

" 'Star Wars' Ousts 'Jaws' As Champ Of U.S. Boxoffice," Variety, November 23, 1977

" 'Star Wars' Passes The $3 Mil Domestic B.O. Mark," Daily Variety, June 02, 1977

" 'Star Wars' Proves There's Plenty Of Life In Deluxers," Daily Variety, July 21, 1978

"The Star Wars Story," Screen International, December 17, 1977

"Summer Movies 5: The Joy Of F/X," Maxim, May 2003

Sutherland, Alex, "The Dolby Revolution In The Sound Of Movies," Screen International, June 25, 1983

Thomas, Bob, " 'Star Wars' Campaign Wins Big," The Seattle Times, August 12, 1977

Vaz, Mark Cotta, "Launching The Rebellion," The Official Star Wars 20th Anniversary Commemorative Magazine, 1997

Woods, Bob, "It Took The World By Force," The Official Star Wars 20th Anniversary Commemorative Magazine, 1997

Home Video:

"Star Wars
," VHS videocassette, Twentieth Century-Fox Video, Catalog Number 1130, 1982

"Star Wars," VHS videocassette, CBS/Fox Video, Catalog Number 1130, 1984

"Star Wars Trilogy: The Definitive Collection," LaserDisc, Fox Video-CBS/Fox Video, Catalog Number 0693-84, 1993


"The Story Of Star Wars
," 20th Century Records, LP Catalog Number PML 95, 1977


L'Affiche Star Wars Saga American One-Sheet Poster Checklist, Kilian Enterprises, 1985

Special Thanks

Academy of Motion Picture Arts And Sciences
Bill Brinkman
Ben Burtt
Jim Cartwright
Dolby Laboratories, Inc.
Derek Gee
Nicholas Grieco
Modest Iwasiw
Jeffry Johnson
William Kallay
Steve Kraus
Bill Kretzel
Roberto Landazuri
Alan & Shanna Lemke
Mark Lensenmayer
Paul Linfesty
Tricia Littrell
Adam Martin
Jim Millick
Jim Perry
John Pytlak
Mike Schindler
Grant Smith
Darryl Spicer
and, a number of helpful librarians from across the U.S.

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Updated 26-05-24